Reconstruirea economiei României

Pentru reconstruirea economiei României trebuie să “fim cuminţi” şi să aşteptăm investitorii străini, ni se spune. Dar dacă investitorii străini nu vin, ce facem, fluierăm a pagubă ? Aşa cum facem de când l-am acceptat pe Mark Gitenstein şef la Fondul Proprietatea, îmbuibându-se fără de Verecundia (adică neruşinare, pe româneşte) din banii noştri, în vreme ce noi, cei pentru care a fost construit Fondul Proprietatea, nu primim nimic ! În principiu, există şi alte surse investiţionale pentru noi IMM-uri. Capitalul iniţial pentru germenele de întreprindere (Start-Up Capital) poate avea următoarea provenienţă : 1/bani personali, 2/bani de la neamuri bune, 3/ bani de la prieteni. Sigur, că poate exista şi cea de a patra sursă, eu personal m-am întâlnit în anul 2005 la o conferinţă organizată de Camera de Comerţ şi de Industrie a României (era o iniţiativă europeană) pe tema reciclării produselor electronice uzate, cu asemenea ofertă – era vorba despre bani provenind din fonduri europene http://www.ecodesignarc.info/servlet/is/909/Case%20study%20-%20Uni%20Craiova%20-%20model%20SME.pdf?command=downloadContent&filename=Case%20study%20-%20Uni%20Craiova%20-%20model%20SME.pdf Citez de acolo : +Case Study / Electronic devices / Romanian University of Craiova develops a model for eco-design implementation in an SME. Summary: Activities at University of Craiova target at developing a model small enterprise implementing eco-design, largely based on the standards of the ISO 14.000 family. // The group of Titus Filipas at the University develops devices, such as lock-in amplifiers, sweep generators, active probes for oscilloscopes, nuclear radiation dosimetres, magnetometers and different educational electronic kits. The enterprise intends to evaluate the potential environmental impact of all their products in advance, aiming to achieve a type III environmental label. This type of label should give a clear advantage in procurement procedures of public high schools in Romania, which are seen as major customers for the educational electronics kits. Already now, reused parts are incorporated in new products, e.g. integrated circuits for amplifiers. Used printed circuit boards are on offer on the local market. Linear components (diodes, transistors etc.) are disassembled manually and reintegrated in new products. Proper choice of components to be re-used needs good expertise. By implementing the major ISO standards for Life Cycle Analysis, Eco-Design, and Environmental Management a well structured approach is undertaken. In parallel, this business case serves also as a methodological input to educational activities at the University. // Product portfolio: The authors are experimental physicists, and do have a consistent expertise in designing and assembling educational electronic devices of small series for the laboratories of the university and for the physics laboratories of high schools in the region, clearly giving a preference to local aspects. Types of apparatus that we already build are, for instance, lock-in amplifiers, sweep generators, active probes for oscilloscopes, nuclear radiation dosimetres, magnetometers and different educational electronic kits. // The educational perspective : By now, the ‘potential environmental impact’ of these devices produced in the workshops of the university have not been assessed from an ecologic point of view. Being an educational institution, the group intends also to build-up a glossary and a thesaurus of terms in the Romanian language about eco-design, and the related fields of environmental management. It is intended to build-up a functional framework in Romanian language for the standards regarding environmental management. This will serve as a basis for tutorials to be given for SMEs in Romania. // Green public procurement: The group also intends to make a complete life cycle assessment for each of the products, considering also the requirements for type III environmental labels. This type of label will favor the products in future (green) procurement procedures for public high schools in Romania – provided, that greenprocurement will be made mandatory in Romania. // Pro-active strategy : It is intended to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the products before effectively building the product. Although in absolute figures the environmental impact of this small enterprise is also small, it is intended to benchmark the products with the best practice in the field. // Reuse as cornerstone for eco-design : Already today some of the components and integrated circuits (with a preference for operational amplifiers) used in the products are reused components. Used and dismantled printed circuit boards with components are offered on the local market. Simple linear components (diodes, transistors, linear integrated circuits) are disassembled manually. Recycling and reuse electronic components disassembled from used printed circuit boards is a rational choice. Selection of the components to be reused needs a thorough technical expertise. // Product documentation : The products will be accompanied by a tutorial handbook in both English and Romanian. The quality of the technical writing is essential for a long product lifetime, giving thorough advice. The product documentation also comprises the environmental label declarations. // The key role of the ISO 14.0xx standards : Different standards of the ISO 14.000 series for environmental management will be implemented, considering the phases of the cycle for continuous improvement: Plan, Do, Check, Act, or the so-called Deming cycle. There are more constraints to do eco-design and environmental management in Romania than in the countries of Western Europe. For instance, up to now there is no tutorial for the ‘Deming cycle’ available in Romanian language. The framework of the Deming cycle in this case is the ISO 14.001 standard environmental management systems. In the phase ‘Plan’ of the Deming cycle, first the ISO 14.040 standards for LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) will be implemented, following a concept to assessed and aggregated the total environmental impact of the designed product. In the phase ‘Plan’ also the requirements on eco-design as standardized by ISO 14.062 will be implemented, having also an effect on the phase ‘Do’ of the Deming cycle. The ‘Do’ phase sees also the implementation of the ISO 14.02x standards. Due to the fact, that the products contain ‘recycled content’, we have to use the ISO 14021 standard for the type II environmental label. In our case we have to pay special attention to the ISO 14.025 standard for the type III environmental labels. Also in the phase ‘Do’ the standard ISO 14.063 for communication of environmental performance will be implemented. In the phase ‘Check’ the ISO 14.03x standards are relevant which provide guidelines for the assessment and the description of the environmental performance of the organization. Also in the phase ‘Check’ the ISO 19.011 standard is implemented, called “Guidelines on quality and environmental auditing”. This standard is intended for the meta-assessment of the environmental performance. In the phase ‘Check’ also the ISO 14.064 standard for green house gas emissions is relevant. // The economic dimension : Coupling Life Cycle Analysis (environmental analysis) with Life Cycle Costing (economic analysis) usually is very resource consuming, going beyond what a small enterprise can afford. Nevertheless, eco-design without Life Cycle Costing still has major economic incentives for a small enterprise because it smoothes the way towards achieving the environmental labels, of which the type III environmental labels are extremely important for green public procurement. Following the entire Deming cycle with the ISO 14.000 standards furthermore eases the way to the organization for getting the EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme) and ISO 14001 certificates. // Authors: Titus Filipas, Dan Murtaza, University of Craiova, Romania (reference: T. Filipas, EcoDesignARC workshop, Bucharest, Sept. 16, 2005) + Principalul motiv pentru care un IMM nou capotează este acela că nu are o „propunere de valoare” („value proposition”). Noi am demonstrat convingător, în proiectul nostru din anul 2005, că aveam o „propunere de valoare”. Ce urmează, după folosirea capitalului de începere pentru germenele de întreprindere şi construirea modelului economic ? Folosirea instrumentului financiar denumit pe englezeşte “private equity” pentru extensia bilanţului de patrimoniu (balance sheet). Astfel se pot construi IMM-urile de tip Private Equity, adică IMM-urile finanţate privat în fonduri proprii. Doar un asemenea model de întreprindere “pe bune”, adică să fie de tipul securizat legislativ/juridic aşa cum se întâmplă în USA, permite unui germene de întreprindere (start-up) să crească economiceşte viabil. Dacă vreţi, IMM-ul finanţat privat în fonduri proprii este un mic Ordin al Templierilor creat adhoc pentru creşterea economică. Să nu ne speriem de ele. România are, încă din secolul XIX, experienţa bună a instituţiilor create adhoc. Trebuie să revenim la tradiţia noastră a statului-naţiune, o tradiţie desfiinţată de către dictatorul-“ctitor” Nicolae Ceauşescu.
Titus Filipas

Etichete: , , ,


%d blogeri au apreciat asta: